Hyde & Rugg:

We solve hard problems


Modern trade and communications depend on secure codes, but the current generation of codes are reaching their limits. That’s why we’re interested in the underlying assumptions on which current codes are based, and in identifying ways of creating new types of code.

We’ve worked on four main topics in this area:

  • The Voynich Manuscript
  • The D’Agapeyeff Cipher
  • The Penitentia Manuscript
  • The Ricardus Manuscript

The Voynich Manuscript is an ancient manuscript that nobody has been able to decipher. Gordon showed that the manuscript could easily have been produced as a meaningless hoax. More...

The D’Agapeyeff Cipher is a classic uncracked code, dating from 1939. Gordon has worked with Gavin Taylor, Robert Matthews and Steven Antrobus on this problem, and they have identified some promising leads. More...

The Penitentia Manuscript is based on Gordon’s work on key assumptions underpinning modern codes. The Penitentia Manuscript deliberately departs from those standard assumptions. It has never been cracked. More...

The Ricardus Manuscript is also based on Gordon's work on assumptions underpinning modern codes. It is loosely modelled on the look of the Voynich Manuscript, and was developed partly as a way of discovering the practical issues involved in creating a manuscript of this type. It has never been cracked. More...


Challenges that we've worked on (detail)

Clockwise from top left: The Voynich Manuscript; the D'Agapeyeff Cipher; the Penitentia Manuscript; the Ricardus Manuscript.